One of the males destined to become listed on the ranks of Michigan’s pioneer sugar barons had been John C. Liken. He was nearly 70 yrs . old once the concept struck him and already wealthy beyond the goals he most likely had as he carved barrel staves for an income as an indigent immigrant in New York above fifty many years previously. By 1900, he operated a huge business in a tiny city that described him due to the fact city dad because their enterprise created the jobs that introduced visitors to town.
Their yearly product sales throughout the many years preceding 1900, in modern-day terms, equated to about $7.5 million. In a mixture of businesses that employed 200 individuals, he operated four saw mills primarily engaged in manufacturing barrel staves, many of which he delivered to Germany, two flour mills, a major retail store for equipment, dried out products, groceries, and drugs that 1884 employed nine clerks.
Liken’s businesses were headquartered in a tiny city in Michigan’s “thumb”. Town had been Sebewaing, a tiny assortment of austere homes nestled regarding the east shore associated with the Saginaw Bay some twenty-five kilometers northeast of Bay City. Its residents were day laborers who worked at among Liken’s establishments or on one associated with the surrounding facilities, or fished into the great Saginaw Bay that lapped the shores within hiking distance associated with the city.
Sebewaing borrowed its name from the Chippewa word for crooked creek many of its wide range from the abundant fishing into the bay. Shortly prior to the 19th century stumbled on a close, nearby woodlands dropped to swift axes, making room for German settlers who quickly set about the double tasks of the removal of stumps and sowing crops.
Liken, an indigenous of Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany came across Wallburga Kunkle, the woman who would come to be their spouse, in Binghamton, New York. She had been a native of Bavaria and bore the name of a canonized nun who traveled to Germany from England in 748 to perform great works. St. Wallburga became the patron saint of plagues, famines and many various other discomforts, including puppy bites. John Liken had found its way to Binghamton after employed by their passageway aboard a sailing vessel.
After the birth of their fourth youngster, Emma, in 1864, who joined her siblings, Mary, produced in 1856, Hannah produced in 1858, and Charles, produced in 1859, John and Walburga relocated the family to Sebewaing, a Lutheran settlement that has been attracting anglers, farmers and wood males. Town’s populace upon their arrival in 1865 had been inadequate to proclaim it a village, however with the arrival of John Liken, that has been planning to alter. He established a sawmill in which he made barrel staves. Later, he’d develop stores, a creamery, granaries, and ships, integrating within one person a source for all the goods and services needed by the regional farming community. The ointment and crops, he positioned on boats and delivered some thirty kilometers over the Saginaw Bay shoreline to Bay City, a bustling and developing town in which the daily need for groceries expanded apace having its burgeoning populace. In was at this link, shipping, that he became acquainted with ship owner Captain Benjamin Boutell and it also had been through Captain Boutell that he would read about sugar opportunities.
The hamlet expanded into a village additionally the city folk started to think about Liken due to the fact city dad. Having brought two daughters and a boy to the community, who like their particular dad were each of great kind, a healthy body, and great cheer, it had beenn’t unforeseen that Likens started to add significantly on populace. Mary took for a husband, Richard Martini and a few many years later, Hannah allowed a youthful Christian Bach to make her mind (In later times, Christian followed their center name, Fred as their given name of choice. He seems into the Michigan sugar chronicles authored by Daniel Gutleben as C.F. Bach.) Charles along with his spouse, Elizabeth decided to the community to occupy handling of their father’s affairs.
John Liken had departed their Oldenburg house on age of eighteen after finishing a four-year apprenticeship into the cooperage trade. However have understood of sugar beets as a result of that experience and undoubtedly would-have-been conscious that males from their homeland was in fact taking pleasure in some success together in Michigan’s Bay County in which three industrial facilities were then functioning and something even more had been underway but another had been under construction in Saginaw.
Entirely, a complete of eleven beet industrial facilities would shortly put sugar and earnings into Michigan cities if an individual thought the hoopla developed by railroads yet others who would profit from the construction of industrial facilities. The excitement that had been stirring farmers and investors throughout the state seeped into Sebewaing. Liken saw you should not drum-up support by the typical techniques, holding city group meetings, enlisting editors of regional periodicals, employing rings and forward males to call upon the farmers. He was convinced associated with the requirement for a beet sugar factory and because an excellent portion of the area wide range lived inside the coffers, he saw you should not convince other people to occupy the reason. The Likens possessed sufficient resources to build a factory.
He formed an advertisement hock committee comprising their child Charles, Richard Henry Martini, the spouse of their child Hannah, and child Mary’s spouse, Christian Fred Bach. All three had held crucial roles in Liken’s businesses for quite some time and all sorts of were in their belated 30’s, therefore steeped in experience. Additionally, the three lived next to one another on Center Street in Sebewaing, with Martini at quantity 69, Charles next-door at 68, and Bach at quantity 67, therefore the trio could convene at leisure and without formality. Should he along with his committee approve the concept, the master plan would proceed with no typical purchase of stock to community users. It didn’t require plenty of analysis on the part of the committee. That they had a good amount of arable land at their particular disposal. The Liken family members monitored a thousand acres independently account that combined with other people, removed a necessity for a rail range to share beets to a factory situated on Lake Huron’s shore. That they had the monetary capacity.
John C. was in fact big. Every one of their daughters along with his child enjoyed full time servants in their homes and each had been sufficiently off to invest in the new sugar organization independently account and each had demonstrated managerial capability over a long period of time. That they had every characteristic necessary for success into the new industry save one…experience in sugarbeets. Information associated with the task in Liken’s headquarters leaked to the community at-large and motivated some farmers to grow beets, although a completed factory had been nearly 2 yrs as time goes on. Those beets, when ready for marketplace, were delivered to Bay City for handling.
Thinking to include the missing ingredient to an otherwise perfect equation for success, John Liken welcomed Benjamin Boutell and a few of their trustworthy buddies to become listed on into the undertaking. As a consequence, very quickly Liken learned first-hand, the way the camel’s nostrils underneath the tent fable had become. Boutell, no doubt delighted that their expertise was at better demand than their money, quickly enlisted males of wide range and experience. One of them had been John Ross, who would shortly come to be treasurer associated with the German-American Sugar Company, the last of four beet sugar industrial facilities built in Bay County. After that, emerged lumbermen Frederick Woodworth, William Smalley and William Penoyar, and a ship owner known as William Sharp. Whenever males associated with the stature of Ben Boutell and Penoyar signaled their interest, the floodgates exposed; even more males of wide range clamored for a stake into the new organization. A set of Saginaw attorneys Watts S. Humphrey and Thomas Harvey climbed aboard as did George B. Morley, celebrated whole grain supplier and banker. Rasmus Hanson, a wealthy lumberman from Grayling, and future president associated with the German-American Sugar Company, purchased in because did William H. Wallace, a quarry operator in close by Bay Port.
Unknowingly, Liken in attracting investors from Saginaw and Bay City, introduced together two distinct teams which could be called two individual sectors of influence. Boutell’s group consisted of Bay County investors, Woodworth, Ross, Smalley, Sharp and Penoyar. George Morley’s group included James MacPherson, Humphrey, Harvey, and William H. Wallace, all Saginaw residents, although Wallace had been a native of nearby Port Hope and had already been a long term citizen of Bay Port, a village snugging the shoreline thirteen kilometers northeast of Sebewaing. In wings had been Ezra Rust, a wealthy Saginaw citizen that has obtained a lot of money into the lumber industry. While most of the Bay County investors had lumber interests, associated with the Saginaw group only MacPherson had a lumber back ground. The 2 sectors would occupy the activity of in-fighting once the new organization got underway.
Representatives of just what amounted to three distinct teams, Boutell’s Bay City contingent, Morley’s Saginaw faction, and John Liken’s family members, collected in Watts Humphrey’s Saginaw workplace in July 1901 to occupy the matter of organization. Humphrey’s popularity would come not from sugarbeet handling but from the proven fact that their then 12-year old child, George M. Humphrey, would one-day achieve stature due to the fact Secretary associated with the Treasury under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, offering from 1953 until 1957.
Wasting no time at all, the organizers had in front of you, four associates of construction companies specializing in building beet handling industrial facilities. These were Fuehrman & Hapke, E. H. Dyer, Kilby Manufacturing, and Oxnard Construction. It had been anticipated that when the stocks were adopted by the attendees, a contract will be awarded to a single associated with the four bidders. To Benjamin Boutell along with his Bay City group, there was clearly only 1 quote of any interest in their mind hence had been the only from Kilby Manufacturing for $900,000. The price had been a hefty $1,500 per ton of beet slicing capacity, nearly twice as much $850 per ton cost associated with the Essexville factory and virtually $600 even more per ton than the price the German-American Sugar Company factory that has been presently under construction. Oxnard’s quote of a little above $1,800 per ton (including, as always, a Steffens procedure) and Dyer’s beside the least expensive quote of $1,416 per ton were beaten out-by Fuehrman & Hapke’s winning quote of $1,320 per ton for a complete cost of $792,000.
1st purchase of business called for the election of officer and administrators, a typically placid affair once the organization founders understood one another including did the gathering in Humphrey’s workplace. Representatives of every associated with the three primary shareholder teams secured roles. Bay City lumberman, W. C. Penoyar was handed the presidency, while Sebewaing’s Christian Bach took regarding the vice-presidency, additionally the Saginaw group saw William Baker and Thomas Harvey took the secretary and treasurer seating. Benjamin Boutell and William Wallace joined the exec committee. Towards the top of the schedule had been the matter of selecting the winning quote the factory’s construction, which will be, as always, a complete turnkey procedure. That is once the temporary alliance between Bay City, Huron County, and Saginaw County investors fractured.
Boutell’s audience, said the lower quote made no distinction, they would accept none other than the only posted by Kilby. To your Saginaw group, it was tantamount to drawing a line into the sand. They thought solidly in awarding the contract on least expensive bidder. Properly, the Sebewaing-Saginaw associates who monitored three associated with the officer roles, ignoring the reality that Boutell along with his buddies monitored 45 per cent associated with the organization hence a member of their faction just secured the presidency, provided the nod to Fuehrman & Hapke. Boutell and organization recoiling from the recommendation that anybody except Kilby would develop a factory by which they’d invested, terminated their particular stock subscriptions, resigned their particular roles and withdrew from the board of administrators.
If the dirt decided, Boutell along with his co-investors were out additionally the Saginaw contingent held the controlling interest at 55 per cent with control divided involving the Morley and Rust people. The Rust family members headed by Ezra Rust would keep its mark on the City of Saginaw in the form of a city playground and a major thoroughfare bearing its name. Ezra’s confidence into the sugar industry could have stemmed from a stint he served as an engineer in a Cuban sugar mill during their childhood. Morley presented 5,000 stocks inside the very own name, while numerous members of the Rust family members presented 4,000 stocks. Family members and buddies of John Liken presented 45 per cent.
The abrupt detachment of Bay City investors necessitated an extra election. The presidency visited Thomas Harvey. John Liken’s son-in-law, Christian Bach, retained the vice-president’s post and a seat on director’s dining table. Liken’s child, Charles, accepted a consultation as treasurer but didn’t win a board chair. William F. Schmitt, a stockholder and Christian Bach’s sis Emma’s suitor, became secretary. In time and after having already been tested by fire, he’d prove that their advancement had been owed totally to their ability, to not their commitment on Bach family members. In 1906, he took cost associated with the Sebewaing factory that he then led for six many years before leaving the company for a senior place with Continental Sugar Company. Administrators, besides Harvey and Christian Bach, included William H. Wallace, Watts Humphrey, George Morley, James MacPherson, who replaced Benjamin Boutell, and Richard Martini.
The appointed specialist the factory’s construction, Henry Theodore Julius Fuehrman, usually dealt with as Jules, arrived from New York in which he’d built an identical factory at Lyons and before that, Pekin, Illinois. He starred in September the groundbreaking ceremony. With him had been their companion, Theodore Hapke who won high regard from location farmers of German extraction as a result of their familiarity with sugarbeets along with his power to give an explanation for topic into the mama tongue.
Fuehrman was in fact closely associated with the construction of a beet factory in Grand Island, Nebraska, which to their chance happened to be into the destination after Germany that he labeled as house. He was the sole child of Henry and Tulia Fuehrman of Brunswick, Germany. Starting on age of fourteen, he served an apprenticeship into the mason’s trade. After deciding to prepare himself the tasks of an architect, he devoted himself on study of architecture in various polytechnic institutions throughout their native land. Whenever two decades old, he entered the Germany Army, offering one-year, plus in 1882, he emigrated to The united states in which after investing 2 yrs in Chicago he decided in Grand Island. Indeed there he accepted many commissions, like the design associated with the town hallway, a church, a university, and eventually the Oxnard beet sugar factory in Grand Island.
Fuehrman’s success attracted the prestigious architectural company of article & McCord, the company that built the roof over Madison Square Garden additionally the big metal frames the skyscrapers that dotted Broadway and Wall Street plus in 1931 would construct society’s tallest skyscraper, the Empire State Building. Article & McCord partnered aided by the similarly prestigious United states Bridge Company, therefore the Sebewaing factory’s development had been destined is of solid construction. With William H. Wallace offering regarding the board of administrators, the question of whether or not the basis was going to be produced of solid stones or perhaps the new building product, concrete, had been dealt with without conversation. The stones came from Wallace’s quarry, thirteen kilometers distant in which these people were carved by their expert workmen into squares that conformed on architect’s specifications. Crushed rock from the exact same supply made roadways for hauling equipment and soon after, beets on factory. Already the community had been enjoying the fresh fruits associated with the existence of a sugar factory, improved roads and a richer economic climate as employees discovered gainful work regarding the numerous work teams needed to fashion a factory that will shortly win recognition as one of the biggest of its sort into the country.
Emile Brysselbout, Fuehrman and Hapke’s most recent companion, was also on hand. Brysselbout’s credentials included the recently built Charlevoix, Michigan sugarbeet factory and he had supervised the construction associated with the Essexville factory.
The cornerstone had been laid on October 21, 1901 however the lack of qualified engineers delayed construction. Experienced construction engineers had become a premium in a nation that instantly couldn’t have sufficient beet sugar industrial facilities. Twenty-five beet sugar industrial facilities were built between 1900 and 1905 of which ten were in Michigan. Contributing to the issues had been Fuehrman’s lack. He previously departed for Dresden, Ontario to create an identical factory for Captain James Davidson, a Bay City magnate that has chose to dedicate some of their wide range on beet industry.
By appearances, Davidson’s contract presented better relevance for Fuehrman than did Sebewaing’s. William Wallace, noted for always using a company hand in which someone had been needed, approached Brysselbout aided by the insistence that Joseph Eckert be employed. Eckert had been a person with a can-do reputation and something who would tolerate no obstacles into the road to their goal. Eckert had just finished an assignment at Mendall Bialy’s western Bay City Sugar Company in which he’d increased productivity above one-third.
Gutleben relates whenever Eckert found its way to Sebewaing, he discovered nature busy on task of reclaiming the website. Weeds and wild plants occupied the space designed for a factory. The couple of columns that had been erected on Wallace’s rock fundamentals were poised as though prepared fall to earth. Even worse, there was clearly no equipment on hand to fix the steelwork in position or even install the balance of it. Fuehrman promised a steam engine but its delivery would have to hold back until the metal erection work in Dresden had been finished. It had been April. The farmers desired to know if they need to grow a beet crop. “grow ’em!” exclaimed Eckert who then placed an order the delivery of a steam engine is recharged against Fuehrman & Hapke’s account. Wallace backed the credit. Fuehrman’s skin switched the color of spoiled liver during their next see; he fired their innovative professional for insubordination. Wallace followed by Brysselbout switched the decision around in a hurried ending up in Fuehrman.
One of the benefits of having Brysselbout and Eckert on staff had been their capability to attract males of comparable ability. Brysselbout, motivated by Eckert’s passion and unquestioned part as main task professional after Fuehrman’s were unsuccessful energy to fire him, secured experienced and highly educated operators, males like Hugo Peters, an 1898 graduate of Leipzig University who would come to be Sebewaing’s very first factory superintendent. James Dooley shortly observed. He transported a reputation for request of scientific principles and a very good mind during emergencies. Eckert attracted outstanding engineers such as for example Eugene Stoeckly and Pete Kinyon, a master at erecting the take grids that became the frames the industrial facilities. Nearby farmers, long experienced with neighbors William Wallace, “Bill” to any or all, and John Liken, both hard driving can-do business leaders, had complete confidence that a factory would stand in their particular midst at harvest time, as assured. They set about planting the next sugarbeet crop in Huron County with results that will prove fortuitous on their own and also for the investors.
If the woods started to blaze red and orange and cool dawn breezes dried the early morning dew before farmers stepped from their particular doors, the county’s very first sugarbeet crop waited in neat soldiery rows for men, ladies as well as young ones to approach all of them. A lifter, a tool made to loosen the beet from earth’s hold, managed by the farmer, would continue throughout the area at a walking rate. Harvesters would follow, pulling the beets from the surface then slamming two of them together to loosen grounds and then casting all of them into a pile to await topping. Sooner or later, computerized motor driven machines would do the task, a task improved by pre-topping and then cleansing associated with the beets via a shaking system and dumped into waiting trucks. However for today, it had been brute work.
On October 10, 1902, it had been done. The main building sixty-seven by 258 legs and five floors comprising roughly sixty thousand sqft, made from brick and filled with the most modern-day equipment available to the, established for business. In a town in which the average house consisted of under seven hundred sqft of area, it had been an awesome existence. It had been the grandest and biggest structures built into the United states Midwest up to the period.
It had been concurred that only 1 guy in every of Huron County deserved the honor of delivering the very first load of beets on factory, the guy whoever fantasy set-off the sequence of events that generated the magnificent building today standing at the conclusion of town’s primary street. He was John C. Liken. Their family members had collected round 2 months before on August 9, to celebrate their seventieth birthday and now at an age beyond that which males frequently set-aside the cessation of real work, he led a team of four horses drawing a gaily decorated wagon brimming with sugarbeets onto the machines. The Liken family members, standing next to the constructors, Bill Wallace and a contingent from Saginaw, applauded the advance associated with the high-stepping horses additionally the contented Mr. Liken. In the week, Hugo Peter carried out an operational test, allowing only water through factory to try the preparedness along with the equilibrium associated with the equipment. After making a couple of alterations to fix weaknesses recognized throughout the water test, he ordered the slicing of beets to start on October 27.
The farmers delivered beets containing 13.23 per cent sugar of which they harvested nearly seven tons on acre. Based on Gutleben’s history, the factory yielded above 91,000 hundredweight of sugar on an extraction rate of seventy-one per cent providing it comes back more than from the western Bay City’s factory, the Essexville factory, the Bay City Sugar Company and undoubtedly Benton Harbor, Kalamazoo, additionally the very first 12 months of procedure on Caro factory. The working results mirrored those associated with the Kilby built Alma factory. Economic results, however, were far greater since the 48,250 tons of beets delivered by Sebewaing growers surpassed by two-hundred 50 percent the 19,100 tons delivered by Alma growers for that factory’s very first promotion. Sebewaing growers delivered the best number of beets sent to a single factory up to the period, loud proof of the confidence Huron County farmers put into Wallace, Liken, and Bach, confidence, as events revealed, that has been not misplaced. Estimated earnings for Sebewaing’s very first 12 months of procedure approximated $140,000, 26 per cent on product sales and supplying a 17 per cent profits on return.
Quickly, two crucial personages representing the United states Sugar Refining Company labeled as on Bill Wallace. These were Henry Niese, mind of businesses and W. B. Thomas from the company’s treasury department (Thomas would come to be president of United states Sugar Refining on December 20, 1907 after the loss of Henry O. Havemeyer previously that thirty days.). Their mission was to scout prospects for entry on Sugar Trust. The see occasioned an important change in the company’s makeup when Charles B. Warren, a Detroit attorney who represented the interests associated with the United states Sugar Refining Company arrived fleetingly afterwards to supply a good investment of $325,000. The company issued another thirty-five thousand stocks of stock of which he acquired 32,500; various other investors each enhanced their particular risk by roughly 8.3 per cent, efficiently providing Warren a 50 per cent curiosity about the company aided by the other half in the possession of associated with the Liken family members (24 per cent) and Morley’s Saginaw investors (26 per cent).
The bloom of childhood nevertheless graced the cheeks of Charles Beecher Warren as he starred in Sebewaing like a blessing to drop just what would amount to in current bucks nearly seven million bucks in a start up organization managed totally by regional investors. Their childhood disguised a young man-bearing an audio education and a steely fix which will make anything of himself. Before their time passed, he’d become the United States ambassador to two nations (Japan in 1921 and Mexico in 1924), write the regulations for conscription during World War I, mind a major law firm and direct the affairs of many corporations.
In 1903 when going to Sebewaing, however, he resembled less the power broker and recognized attorney he’d come to be but instead, a nice son with a pocket saturated in money. He was fresh from Saginaw in which he persuaded the owners of the Carrollton factory to just take their cash in change for a 60 per cent risk into the factory that had become when Boutell’s Bay City audience parted organization aided by the Sebewaing investors. However, throughout a few years, dispense above three and half million bucks in Michigan alone ($60 million in current bucks) while acquiring sugar organizations that will immediately are accountable to the New York workplace associated with the United states Sugar Refining Company-not harmful to someone who was in fact using areas in a boarding house situated near Cass Avenue in Detroit in 1900.
Their increase to energy started six many years earlier in the day as he had been appointed connect counsel the United States government in hearings prior to the combined high payment into the Bering water debate with britain. The situation stressed England’s observed right to harvest seals notwithstanding the United States opinion that extinction would undoubtedly follow that training. By 1900, he had been somebody into the law firm of Shaw, Warren, Cady & Oakes a Detroit company representing many banking institutions and manufacturing companies, chief one of them the American Sugar Refining Company. A few years ergo, he’d adopt the name of president of Michigan Sugar Company, a situation he’d hold for 19 many years besides the presidency of a sugar organization in Iowa and another in Minnesota. Through that exact same time period he returned to the intercontinental arena once more in which their carefully viewed overall performance obtained accolades from imminent solicitors in European countries and The united states. This time, he showed up with respect to the United States prior to the Hague tribunal to eliminate a dispute involving the United States and England regarding North Atlantic fishing legal rights.
The child of a tiny city newsprint editor, Robert Warren, he indexed Bay City as their birthplace, but due to the nature of their father’s occupation, relocated occasionally while developing up, always within Michigan. He graduated very first from Albion College then went to and graduated from the University of Michigan before attending the Detroit College of Law in which he graduated LL.B. At Detroit College of Law, he studied under Don. M. Dickenson and then joined Dickenson’s company as he had been admitted on club in 1893, the entire year he graduated. A few years later, he joined John C. Shaw and William B Cady in arranging a different law firm, a company he’d eventually go throughout their job. Early on, showing knowledge associated with the worth of macro administration, he had a tendency to see on installation of experienced supervisors and then keep all of them unmolested as they completed the afternoon to-day requirements of conducting business.
Much as Caro served as an exercise surface for factory operators, Sebewaing acted as a school for factory supervisors have been delivered throughout The united states to beet and cane industrial facilities had by United states Sugar Refining Company yet others. Hugo Peters managed to move on to Dresden to oversee James Davidson’s procedure and then took comparable roles in Idaho, Utah, California as well as the western Indies. In 1920, Peters switched their awareness of spectro-photometric analysis the United States Bureau of Standards, making severe contributions to color analysis. Jim Dooley stayed on as manager at Sebewaing for a few many years then headed businesses for many of Michigan Sugar Company with regards to had become in 1906. Wilfred Van Duker, Sebewaing’s very first chief chemist, dedicated the larger portion of their job to enhancing cane milling in Hawaii. Indeed there, he eventually managed four sugar estates. Richard Henry Martini became General Agricultural Superintendent for Michigan Sugar Company and Henry Pety managed to move on to Utah for a superintendency before going back to Michigan to manage the Mount pleasing factory. The Sebewaing factory carried on to expand by the addition of real structures and equipment in the form of diffusion towers, computerized affairs that replaced the older battery businesses, evaporators, modern-day centrifugals, storage containers as well as other equipment that caused the daily beet slicing ability to gradually expand from 600 tons per day to above 5,000 tons per day.
Estimated earnings the very first 12 months of procedure: Records didn’t endure. The author determined an estimated profit by applying an estimated price tag of $5.12 for each 100 pounds on complete hundredweight available for sale and then deducted expenses projected at$3.57 per 100 pounds.
GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954 p. 182 regarding purchase of sugar industrial facilities by the Sugar Trust, p. 177 regarding organization of Sebewaing Sugar and operating results, printed by Bay Cities Duplicating Company, San Francisco, California
MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:
Sebewaing Glucose 1903, 1904
Sebewaing Lumber, 1901, 1904
Bay Port Fish, 1901
Saginaw Courier Herald, July 11, 1901 – reporting regarding the meeting of stockholders associated with the newly formed Sebewaing Sugar Company.
Portrait and biographical record album of Huron County:
John C. Liken, Christian F. Bach, Richard Martini
U.S. Census reports for Sebewaing, 1900, 1910